This involves data collection on biophysical parameters and phenology of Maize in Northern Ghana.

Data Collection

  • Li-Cor LAI leaf analyzer to monitor leaf area index (LAI).
  • SPAD (chlorophyll) meter to monitor chlorophyll content.
  • Crop yield measurement.

Field data collection began at the beginning of the planting season and continued until maize tasseling.

The biophysical and phenological data are collected weekly.

Project Objectives

Mapping Agricultural Areas

Operational Implementation Plan


Estimating Crop Area

Operational Implementation Plan

Field size measurement


Measuring Phenological Events

Operational Implementation Plan

Phenological Events
  • Seedling
  • Vegetative Growth
  • Flowering
  • Fruit Development
  • Maturity
  • Harvest

Estimation of Biophysical Variables

Operational Implementation Plan

Biophysical Variables
  • Vegetation Indices (NDVI, EVI, SAVI, etc.)
  • LAI (Leaf Area Index)

Forecasting Agricultural Variables

Operational Implementation Plan

Agricultural Variables (large scale)
  • Yield

Site Description

Landscape Topography
Typical Field Size1 acre and above
Climatic ZoneTropics, warm
Major Crops and Calendars

Maize (Normal):
Calendar: July - October

Soil Type & Texture


  • Loamy Sand
Soil Drainage Class
Irrigation InfrastructureNo irrigation
Other Site Details

In Situ Observations


  • Crop Type(s): Maize
  • Collection Protocol:

    Li-Cor LAI leaf analyzer

  • Frequency: weekly


  • Crop Type(s): Maize
  • Collection Protocol:

    SPAD (Chlorophyll) meter

  • Frequency: weekly

Crop yield measurement

  • Crop Type(s): Maize
  • Collection Protocol:
  • Frequency:

EO Data

Optical Data Requirements

  • Approximate Start Date of Acquisition: 02/07
  • Approximate End Date of Acquisition: 31/10
  • Spatial resolution: Medium resolution (20-60m)
  • temporal_frequency:
  • Level of Expertise: Intermediate
  • Latency of Data Delivery:
  • Challanges:
  • SAR Data Requirements

    Passive Microwave Data Requirements

    Thermal Data Requirements


    Documents and Files

    Links to paper

    The selected farms were mapped, and biophysical data of LAI and chlorophyll were collected. Ground-truth data were used to validate the satellite data sets. A crop yield estimation model was developed based on the collected field data and satellite / EO data. The model was designed to provide timely yield estimates.

    Gómez-Dans, J. L., Lewis, P. E., Yin, F., Asare, K., Lamptey, P., Aidoo, K. K. Y., MacCarthy, D. S., Ma, H., Wu, Q., Addi, M., Aboagye-Ntow, S., Doe, C. E., Alhassan, R., Kankam-Boadu, I., Huang, J., and Li, X.: Location, biophysical and agronomic parameters for croplands in northern Ghana, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 5387–5410,, 2022.

    Project Reports

    Study Team

    Team Leader

  • Name: Kofi Asare
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  • Name: Martin Addi
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  • Role: Co-Lead
  • Name: Caroline Edinam Doe
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