South Africa: Eastern & Western Freestate

Overview

Crop identification and Crop Area Estimation

  • Operational crop area estimation for winter (Wheat, Barley) and summer (Maize, sunflower, sorghum, soya and dry beans) crops continue. This data is fed to the national Crop Estimations Committee. Operational systems are continually improved as technologies and systems become available. Satellite imagery is used to delineate and update the national cultivated field database as well as to selectively classify crop type.
  • Crop condition/ stress

The Umlindi system, based on course resolution imagery (Proba V and Modis) and in situ (weather station data) continues to issue its monthly newsletter on drought monitoring, crop condition and other relevant information. The system is continually improved as new indices are incorporated.

  • Soil moisture

The Umlindi system issues a monthly soil water product generated using the Topkapi model run by the University of KwaZulu-Natal. A number of soil water sensors have also been added to some of the automatic weather stations located in the JECAM site.

  • Yield prediction and forecasting

Yield data for wheat and maize is also operationally collected and all this data is fed to the national Crop Estimations Committee for monthly national production estimates. Operational systems are continually improved as technologies and systems become available.

  • Crop Residue, Tillage and Crop Cover Mapping

Not currently addressed due to resource constraints.

The mapping resolution is around 1:50 000.

The timeliness (with regards to growing season) are:

  • Summer crops – Planted December, Harvest May/June
  • Winter Crops – Planted April May, Harvested October November

Project Objectives

Estimating Crop Area

Operational Implementation Plan

Field size measurement

Estimating Crop Conditions

Operational Implementation Plan

Crop Conditions
  • Too wet to be seeded
  • Drought
  • Failure after germination
  • Biological Stress

Estimation of Biophysical Variables

Operational Implementation Plan

Biophysical Variables
  • Residue and Tillage mapping

Forecasting Agricultural Variables

Operational Implementation Plan

Agricultural Variables (large scale)
  • Yield

Site Description

Landscape TopographyRanges from flat undulating plains to mountainous in the east
Typical Field Size0.5 ha to 40 Ha
Climatic ZoneSubtropics, warm/ mod cool
Crop Details

Maize (Early):
Calendar: November - March

Maize (Normal):
Calendar: December - March

Sunflower (Early):
Calendar: November - January

Sunflower (Late):
Calendar: January - March

Soya beans (Normal):
Calendar: November - February

Groundnuts (Normal):
Calendar: December - March

Sorghum (Normal):
Calendar: November - March

Pasture (Normal):
Calendar: September - March

Wheat (Normal):
Calendar: July - December

Forage (Normal):
Calendar: May - September

Alfalfa (Normal):
Calendar: January - December

Oats (Normal):
Calendar: July - December

Soil Type & Texture

Inorganic:

  • Sandy Loam
Soil Drainage Class
  • Well drained
  • Moderately well drained
  • Imperfectly drained
  • Poorly drained
  • Very poorly drained
Irrigation Infrastructure
  • Center pivot irrigation
Other Site Specifications

Typical Crop calendar (Colours in lower rows simulate CIR imagery)

Topography of the Free State Province

Soil Drainage Classes of Free State Province

Topo-cadastral map of the Free State Province showing Roads and towns

Land Cover Map of the Free State Province

Climate Zones of the Free State Province

Distribution of automatic weather stations

In Situ Observations

Temperature, Humidity, Rainfall, Solar Radiation, Wind, Potential evapotranspiration (derived)

  • Crop Type(s):
  • Collection Protocol:

    Weather station data from the automatic weather station network of the ARC-ISCW have been collected at/near each of the 2 sub-sites.

  • Frequency:

Yield measurements

  • Crop Type(s):
  • Collection Protocol:

    Routinely collected at a random number of points

  • Frequency: 150 summer, 70 Winter

EO Data

Optical Data Requirements

  • Approximate Start Date of Acquisition: 01/07
  • Approximate End Date of Acquisition: 30/11
  • Spatial resolution: Low resolution (above 60m)Medium resolution (20-60m)High resolution (5-20m)Very high resolution (below 5m)
  • temporal_frequency: WeeklyBiweekly
  • Level of Expertise: Intermediate
  • Latency of Data Delivery:
  • Challanges:
  • SAR Data Requirements

  • Approximate Start Date of Acquisition: 01/08
  • Approximate End Date of Acquisition: 31/05
  • Spatial resolution:
  • temporal_frequency: BiweeklyMonthly
  • Frequency: XC
  • Incidence Angle: Medium
  • Polarisation: VV
  • Level of Processing: Level 2
  • Orbit: Any
  • Level of Expertise: Intermediate
  • Latency of Data Delivery: 2-5 days
  • Challanges:
  • Passive Microwave Data Requirements

    Thermal Data Requirements

    Results

    Documents and Files

    Links to paper

    Project Reports

    Study Team

    Team Leader

  • Name: Terry Newby
  • Affiliation:
  • Affiliation Webpage:
  • Position:
  • Email: terry@arc.agric.za
  • Personal Webpage:
  • Phone number:
  • Postal Address:
  • Other Team Members

  • Name: Adolph Nyamugama
  • Affiliation:
  • Affiliation Webpage:
  • Position:
  • Email: nyamugamaA@arc.agric.za
  • Personal Webpage:
  • Role: Member
  • Name: Mike Wallace
  • Affiliation:
  • Affiliation Webpage:
  • Position:
  • Email: MikeW@elsenburg.com
  • Personal Webpage:
  • Role: Member