USA-Michigan

Overview

Areas of investigation
We propose two scales of investigation; large plot and landscape.
For the large plot scale, two experimental sites in Michigan are proposed:

  • Kellogg Biological Station Long-term Ecological Research Main Cropping System Experiment (KBS LTER MCSE)
  • Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) Scale-up Experiment (Marshall Farm and Lux Arbor Reserve)

For the landscape scale, we propose to investigate the

  • Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Regional Intensive Modeling Areas (GLBRC RIMAs)

This area covers nine counties in Michigan and four counties in Wisconsin. The Michigan counties encompass the large plot scale sites.

KBS LTER MCSE

Site Overview
A general site description of the KBS LTER and surrounding area can be found at http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/research/site-description-and-maps/general-description/.
The dominant soil series in the area are the Kalamazoo (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalfs) and Oshtemo (coarse-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalfs) series. These soils occupy nearly level to rolling slopes. The Kalamazoo series consists of well drained soils that are moderately permeable in the upper part of the
profile and rapidly permeable in the lower part. More information is available at: http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/research/site-description-and-maps/soil-description/.
The Main Cropping System Experiment (MCSE) is the signature long-term experiment at KBS LTER. It was established in 1989 and is comprised of 4 annual crop treatments, 3 perennial crop treatments, and 4 successional communities. Seven treatments are located at the main site complex (http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/research/long-term-experiments/main-cropping-system-experiment/). Successional and Forest sites are located nearby (http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/research/long-term-experiments/successional-andforest- sites/).
GLBRC Scale-up Experiment
Site Overview
The GLBRC Scale-up experiment includes seven fields at two locations (Marshall Farm and Lux Arbor Reserve).
All Marshall Farm fields were in the USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP; since 1987).
  • Marshall Farm – (Brome grass [control], Native prairie, Switchgrass, Continuous corn)
  • Lux Arbor Reserve – (Native prairie, Switchgrass, Continuous corn)
An eddy covariance flux tower is positioned at each of the seven sites. These towers measure the flow of CO2 into and out of the crop canopy and soil, allowing a complete carbon budget to be constructed. This provides information on rates of carbon sequestration and loss from these different systems.
GLBRC RIMAs – Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Regional Intensive Modeling Areas
Site Overview
The GLBRC RIMAs are multi-county areas in Michigan and Wisconsin used for quantitative modeling of biofuel
cropping systems at landscape scales.

Project Objectives

Estimation of Biophysical Variables

Operational Implementation Plan

KBS LTER MCSE

Biovariables, instrumentation and measurement frequency

A list of all the research protocols used at KBS LTER is at: http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

Parameters measured at the MCSE (with technique) include:

Soil

  • Greenhouse gas fluxes (CH4, N2O, CO2; manual and automated chambers)
  • Inorganic nitrogen (N) and short and long-term N mineralization (soil extractions)
  • Leachate – Inorganic and dissolved organic N (lysimeters)
  • Moisture (time domain reflectometry)
  • Microbial Biomass and biovolume
  • Chemistry – e.g., P, K Ca, Mg
  • Temperature, bulk density, pH, carbonates

Plant/crop

  • Yield
  • Aboveground Net Primary Productivity
  • Below-ground Net Primary Productivity
  • Litter
  • C, N, and P
  • Rooting Depth
  • Species composition

Water hydrochemistry:

Includes: Ca, Mg, Na, K, nitrate, total alkalinity, chloride, sulfate, ammonium, PO4-P, TDP, DOC

Weather
A fully equipped weather station is located at the KBS LTER MCSE. Campbell Scientific sensors connected to a CR1000 datalogger takes readings every 10 seconds and stores hourly integrated values.

Parameters (and model/instrumentation details) include:

  • Temperature (107 probe; vented shield at 3m)
  • Wind speed (014A; mounted at 10m)
  • Wind direction (024A; mounted at 10m)
  • Relative Humidity (HMP45C; mounted at 3m)
  • Solar radiation (Quantum sensor – LI190S; Pyranometer – LI200S; mounted at 3m).
  • Leaf wetness (1 m above ground)
  • Raingauge (NOAH IV)

GLBRC Scale-up Experiment

Biovariables, instrumentation and measurement frequency
Eddy covariance system
Each of the seven towers are equipped with continuous measurements of major microclimate variables at 30- min intervals, including air and soil temperature, relative humidity and VPD, precipitation, photosyntheticallyactive radiation (PAR), soil moisture (0-25 cm, Ms), soil heat flux and net radiation. The flux is measured at 10Hz
frequency and processed for 30-min means following the standard protocols of the FLUXNET using the ECProcessor including WPL corrections, planar rotation, and u* correction.”

Leaf photosynthesis
Measurements that are directly measured or determined from photosynthesis light and CO2 response curves (AQ and A/Ci curves) in dominant and co-dominant species at each site include:

  • Maximum photosynthetic capacity
  • Apparent quantum yield
  • Apparent carboxylation efficiency
  • Light half-saturation point
  • Daily average maximum photosynthesis
  • Dark respiration
  • Temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration
  • Minimum and optimum temperature for photosynthesis

Leaf gas exchange

  • LI-6400 (LICOR) twice yearly
  • Light response curves at ambient CO2 concentrations
  • CO2 response curves at saturating light levels

Soil respiration

  • LI-8100 (LICOR) – automated instantaneous and periodic sampling
  • PVC collars – manual biweekly sampling

Plant sampling

  • Leaf area index (LAI 2000 [LICOR] and Ceptometer [Decagon]) – Biweekly during growing season.
  • Leaf photosynthesis (LICOR 6000) – Monthly during the growing season
  • Root in-growth – Once a year during March-April

Biophysical Variables

    Forecasting Agricultural Variables

    Operational Implementation Plan

    Agricultural Variables (large scale)
    • Yield

    Site Description

    Landscape Topography
    Typical Field Size
    Climatic ZoneTemperate, cool
    Crop Details

    Maize (Normal):
    Calendar: May - September
    Typical Rotation: The four annual ecosystems are corn – soybean – winter wheat rotations

    Soya beans (Normal):
    Calendar: May - September
    Typical Rotation: The four annual ecosystems are corn – soybean – winter wheat rotations

    Winter Wheat (Normal):
    Calendar: April - August
    Typical Rotation: The four annual ecosystems are corn – soybean – winter wheat rotations

    Alfalfa (Normal):
    Calendar: May - September

    Rye:
    Calendar: August - November
    Typical Rotation: Annual rye planted following corn harvest prior to soybeans.

    Red clover (Normal):
    Calendar: August - November
    Typical Rotation: Red clover inter-seeded in the spring into the wheat phase of the rotation prior to corn

    Soil Type & Texture
    Soil Drainage Class
      Irrigation Infrastructure
        Other Site Specifications

        KBS LTER MCSE

        All 11 treatment plots are assigned to a ~1 ha plot in 1 of 6 replicate blocks for the main site complex (87m x 105m) and 1 of 3 or 4 replicate blocks in off-site forest and successional treatment plots. Each plot also contains a permanent set of 5 sampling stations at which most within-plot sampling is performed.
        The four annual ecosystems are corn – soybean – winter wheat rotations managed using:
        (i) Conventional chemical inputs and tillage
        (ii) Conventional chemical inputs and no-tillage
        (iii) Reduced chemical inputs, and
        (iv) No chemical inputs, i.e., biologically.
        The latter two treatments include winter cover crops: red clover inter-seeded in the spring into the wheat phase of the rotation prior to corn, and annual rye planted following corn harvest prior to soybeans.
        The three herbaceous and woody perennial ecosystems are:0
        (i) Alfalfa
        (ii) Poplar clones, and
        (iii) Coniferous forest plantation.
        The four successional ecosystems with herbaceous and woody perennial vegetation are:
        (i) Early successional ecosystem (abandoned from agriculture 1989; periodically burned after 1996)
        (ii) Never-tilled grassland (herbaceous perennial vegetation mown annually)
        (iii) Mid-successional ecosystem (herbaceous annual and woody perennial vegetation)
        (iv) Deciduous forest (woody perennial vegetation)

        In Situ Observations

        Greenhouse gas fluxes (CH4, N2O, CO2; manual and automated chambers)

        • Crop Type(s):
        • Collection Protocol:

          http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

        • Frequency:

        Inorganic nitrogen (N) and short and long-term N mineralization (soil extractions)

        • Crop Type(s):
        • Collection Protocol:

          http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

        • Frequency:

        Leachate - Inorganic and dissolved organic N (lysimeters)

        • Crop Type(s):
        • Collection Protocol:

          http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

        • Frequency:

        Moisture (time domain reflectometry)

        • Crop Type(s):
        • Collection Protocol:

          http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

        • Frequency:

        Microbial Biomass and biovolume

        • Crop Type(s):
        • Collection Protocol:

          http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

        • Frequency:

        Chemistry - e.g., P, K Ca, Mg

        • Crop Type(s):
        • Collection Protocol:

          http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

        • Frequency:

        Temperature, bulk density, pH, carbonates

        • Crop Type(s):
        • Collection Protocol:

          http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

        • Frequency:

        Yield

        • Crop Type(s):
        • Collection Protocol:

          http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

        • Frequency:

        Aboveground Net Primary Productivity

        • Crop Type(s):
        • Collection Protocol:

          http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

        • Frequency:

        Below-ground Net Primary Productivity

        • Crop Type(s):
        • Collection Protocol:

          http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

        • Frequency:

        Litter in plant/crop

        • Crop Type(s):
        • Collection Protocol:

          http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

        • Frequency:

        C, N, and P in plant/crop

        • Crop Type(s):
        • Collection Protocol:

          http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

        • Frequency:

        Rooting Depth

        • Crop Type(s):
        • Collection Protocol:

          http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

        • Frequency:

        Species composition

        • Crop Type(s):
        • Collection Protocol:

          http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

        • Frequency:

        Includes: Ca, Mg, Na, K, nitrate, total alkalinity, chloride, sulfate, ammonium, PO4-P, TDP, DOC in water

        • Crop Type(s):
        • Collection Protocol:

          http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/protocols

        • Frequency:

        EO Data

        Optical Data Requirements

        SAR Data Requirements

        Passive Microwave Data Requirements

        Thermal Data Requirements

        Results

        Documents and Files

        Links to paper

        Project Reports

        Study Team

        Team Leader

      • Name: Phil Robertson
      • Affiliation: Michigan State University
      • Affiliation Webpage: https://msu.edu/
      • Position:
      • Email: robert30@msu.edu
      • Personal Webpage:
      • Phone number:
      • Postal Address:
      • Other Team Members

      • Name: Bruno Basso
      • Affiliation: Michigan State University
      • Affiliation Webpage: https://msu.edu/
      • Position:
      • Email: basso@msu.edu
      • Personal Webpage:
      • Role: Co-Lead